Everything Teachers Need To Know About Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy is almost one of the most important things that has certainly shaped education.
Bloom’s Taxonomy refers to a hierarchical ordering of cognitive skills that, inter alia, is used by teachers to support students’ learning.
Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used to plan lessons, develop peer and self-assessment, design and evaluate teaching materials, learning and instructional design, plan learning objectives, plan students’ projects…..etc.
The upsurge of this Taxonomy dates back to 1956 when Benjamin Bloom, Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for classifying educational goals: Educational Objectives Taxonomy or Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Later on known as Bloom’s taxonomy, this framework has been used by many teachers and educators at that time.
Bloom’s taxonomy subsumed six major levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. All the categories in Bloom’s taxonomy except knowledge were considered skills and abilities because knowledge is a necessary perquisite for putting these skills into practice.
The original Taxonomy (1956)
The original version of Bloom’s Taxonomy includes six categories. Check the following table where each category is explained in depth.
|Knowledge||Recalling previously learned information. This includes specific names, things and objects, methods, processes, pattens, structures and settings.|
|Comprehension||Demonstrating the understanding of facts.|
|Application||Applying knowledge to actual situations. This means the ability of using abstract things in concrete situations.|
|Analysis||Breaking ideas and units into smaller parts and making possible connections between the parts.|
|Synthesis||Compile the components of a unit or object to form the whole.”|
|Evaluation||Judging the value of material, methods, and infomration|
The revised version of bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s taxonomy has been revised by a group of cognitive psychologists and instructional researchers in 2001. This new version was entitled A Taxonomy for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. This title shows that this version of Bloom’s Taxonomy has become broader than the old one.
The developers of the revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy believes that it is very dynamic and broad in terms of conceptions of classifications. It includes six main categories. And each category, there are multiple sub-categories:
The first category is : Remember
The second category is : Understand
The third category is : Apply
The fourth category is : Analyze
The fifth category is : Evaluate
The sixth category is : Create
In the new version of Bloom’s Taxonomy, the creators consider knowledge the basis of the six cognitive skills. So, they created a separate taxonomy for knowledge.
|FactualKnowledge||This incorporates Knowledge of terminology|
|This incorporates Knowledge of specific details and elements|
|This incorporates Knowledge of classifications and categories|
|This incorporates Knowledge of principles and generalizations|
|This incorporates Knowledge of theories, models, and structures|
|ProceduralKnowledge||This incorporates Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms|
|This incorporates Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods|
|This incorporates Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures|
|Metacognitive Knowledge||This incorporates Strategic Knowledge|
|This incorporates Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge|
|This incorporates Self-knowledge|
The use of Bloom’s taxonomy
According to the authors and creators of the bloom’s taxonomy, it can be used to:
- Organizing learning objectives according to priorities.
- Planning and delivering instructional content.
- Designing valid assessments that match what the students studied.
- Evaluating lessons and learning objectives.
- Assuring the alignment of instruction and assessment.
I hope this post was comprehensive enough to cover the most important things.
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Have a great day, Edutopians.
- Belmont, M. (N.d.). Approaches to Teaching and Learning.
- Grana, T. (N.d.). Bloom’s Taxonomy and the Three Little Pigs.
- Educational Origami. (2014). Bloom’s, Learning Styles and Thinking Organisers.